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Access: Entry to or communication with a particular object, such as as operating system, specific files, servers, or accounts.

ACK: [from the ASCII mnemonic for 0000110] Acknowledge. Used to register one's presence or permission. Ping is an application that performs an ACK function.

Account: An entity which is established as an authorized user of the system. Each Thorn Communications user requires an account in order to establish a connection to the service.

Address Resolution: A means for mapping Network Layer addresses onto media-specific addresses. This is what happens when you type in a host name, and your DNS server looks up the corresponding IP address.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute. ANSI sets the standards for the US computer industry, and participates in defining network protocol standards.

Anonymous FTP: Anonymous FTP allows a user to retrieve documents, files, programs, and other archived data from anywhere in the Internet without having to establish a userid and password. By using the special userid of "anonymous" the network user will bypass local security checks and will have access to publicly accessible files on the remote system. Most anonymous FTP sites require a valid Internet address for the password.

Application: An application is a computer program that performs a certain task.

Application Layer: The top-most layer in the OSI Reference Model providing such communication services as electronic mail and file transfer.

ARP: (Address Resolution Protocol) The Internet protocol used to dynamically map Internet addresses to physical (hardware) addresses on local area networks. Limited to networks that support hardware broadcast.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. An eight bit code for character representation; includes seven bits plus parity. It is the widely accepted code to represent alphanumeric information.

ASCII art: The fine art of drawing diagrams using the ASCII character set.

Archie: A system to automatically gather, index and serve information on the Internet. The initial implementation of Archie provided an indexed directory of filenames from all anonymous FTP archives on the Internet. Later versions provide other collections of information.

Archive Site: A machine that provides access to a collection of files across Internet. An "anonymous FTP archive site", for example, provides access to this material via the FTP protocol.

Autoexec.bat: The AUTOEXEC.BAT file resides on all PCs and contains a series of commands that are executed when the computer starts up.

Backup: Backup is the process of preserving copies of files on a different drive, directory, or media, t o protect against the destruction or loss of the original files in the event of a hardware or system failure.

Backbone: The primary connectivity mechanism of a hierarchical distributed system. All systems which have connectivity to an intermediate system on the backbone are assured of connectivity to each other. This does not prevent systems from setting up private arrangements with each other to bypass the backbone for reasons of cost, performance, or security.

Bind: The Bind application provides name server functions as a Domain Name Server (DNS). You can specify multiple domains and a list of host names within each domain.

BITNET: "Because It's Time NETwork". An academic computer network based originally on IBM mainframe systems interconnected via leased 9600 bps lines. BITNET has recently merged with CSNET, The Computer+Science Network (another academic computer network) to form

BOC: Bell Operating Company. More commonly referred to as RBOC for Regional Bell Operating Company. The local telephone company in each of the seven U.S. regions.

Bounce: The return of a piece of mail because of an error in its delivery.

Bridge: A device that connects two or more physical networks and forwards packets between them. Bridges can usually be made to filter packets, that is, to forward only certain traffic. Related devices are: Repeaters which simply forward electrical signals from one cable to another, and full-fledged Routers which make routing decisions based on several criteria. In OSI terminology, a bridge is a Data Link Layer intermediate system.

Brouter: A device which bridges some packets (i.e., forwards based on datalink layer information) and routes other packets (i.e., forwards based on network layer information). The bridge/route decision is based on configuration information.

Buffer: A temporary storage area for data during the transfer of that data between the computer and a peripheral or between parts of a computer to prevent loss of information.

Bulletin Board System (BBS): A computer, and associated software, which typically provides services or activities of interest to the bulletin board system's operators. Although BBS's have traditionally been the domain of hobbyists, an increasing number of BBS's are connected directly to the Internet, and many BBS's are currently operated by government, educational, and research institutions.

CERN: The Corporation for Educational and Research Networking.

Channel: [IRC] The basic unit of discussion on IRC. Once one joins a channel, everything one types is read by others on that channel. Channels can either be named with numbers or with strings that begin with a `#' sign and can have topic descriptions (which are generally irrelevant to the actual subject of discussion). This IRC channel software can be ftp'd at the cs-ftp.bu.edu site. The files are found in the /irc/clients directory.

Client: A client is a computer program or system that uses resources provided by another machine (commonly know as a server).

Client-Server Model:A common way to describe network services and the model user processes (programs) of those services. Examples include the name-server/name-resolver paradigm of the DNS and file- server/file-client relationships such as NFS and diskless hosts.

Command Line: The entire command string, including the command and any parameters or qualifiers that it may have. A command is an instruction or request for the system to perform a particular action. config.sys file: This file resides on all PCs, and it defines which device drivers it installs.

Cyberspace: A term coined by William Gibson in his fantasy novel "Neuromancer" to describe the world of computers, and the society that gathers around them.

D-Channel: Used when refering to ISDN lines. The ISDN BRI ( Basic Rate Interface) has 2 64K B-channels and one D-channel. The B-channels are used for voice,data or video transmissions, while the D-channel is used for signaling.

DNS, Domain Name System: The distributed name/address mechanism used in the Internet. The DNS is a general purpose distributed, replicated, data query service. The principal use is the lookup of host IP addresses based on host names. The style of host names now used in the Internet is called "domain name", because they are the style of names used to look up anything in the DNS. Some important domains are: .COM (commercial), .EDU (educational), .NET (network operations), .GOV (U.S. government), and .MIL (U.S. military). Most countries also have a domain. For example, .US (United States), .UK (United Kingdom), .AU (Australia).

Download: To transfer data or (esp.) code from a larger `server' system over a digital comm link to a smaller `client' system. With Thorn Communications Internet access you may "download" files from an FTP site to your local machine so that you can view them or execute them. This is performed using an FTP application.

Domain: In the Internet, a part of a naming hierarchy. Syntactically, an Internet domain name consists of a sequence of names (labels) separated by periods (dots), e.g., "microsoft.com" For Thorn Communications users you are part of the "thorn.net" domain.

Dialup: A temporary (as opposed to dedicated) connection between machines established over some type of phone line. As an Thorn user you will dialup a POP (point-of-presence) for your connection to the Internet.

FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions

File Access: File access allows users to work with a remote file as if the file is local.

FTP: (File Transfer Protocol) The Internet protocol (and program) used to transfer files between hosts. See FTAM. The FTP application is used to provide file transfer services across a wide variety of systems through this FTP protocol. This is an application that allows users to access and retrieve files from other hosts, and implement them on their own terminal.

File server: A process running on a computer that provides access to files on that computer, to programs running on remote machines. File access, the FTP protocol, and the file servers, is all part what makes FTP'ing possible.

Finger: A standard information retrieval protocol sometimes used to list who is currently logged in on another machine. The information includes users login name, full name, home directory, the login shell, the time they logged in if they are currently logged in, or the time they last logged in if they are not, as well as the terminal or host for which they logged in.

Flame: To express strong opinion and/or criticism of something, usually as a frank inflammatory statement found in USENET news groups.

FYI: (For Your Information) A subseries of RFCs that are not technical standards of descriptions of protocols. FYIs convey general information about topics related to TCP/IP or the Internet.

Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN): The FQDN is the full name of a system, rather than just its hostname. For example, "venera" is a hostname, "isi.edu" is a domian name, and "venera.isi.edu" is an FQDN.

Gateway: The original Internet term for what is now called a Router or more precisely, an IP router. In modern usage, the terms "gateway" and "application gateway" refer to systems which do translation from one native format to another. Examples include X.400 to/from RFC 822 electronic mail gateways. Mail gateways llow users to mail their messages to users of different networks or terminals.

Gopher: A distributed information service that makes available hierarchical collections of information across the Internet. Gopher uses a simple protocol that allows a single Gopher client to access information from any accessible Gopher server, providing the user with a single "Gopher space" of information. Public domain versions of the client and server are available. See also: archie, archive site, Prospero, Wide Area Information Servers.

Group ID: A unique number associated with each group name on the server.

Hacker: A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in particular. The term is often misused in a pejorative context, where "Cracker" would be the correct term.

Hop: A term used in routing. A path to a destination on a network is a series of hops, through routers, heading away from the origin point of the packet.

Host: Any end user computer system that connects to a network. Hosts range in size from a personal computer to mainframes. It is these computers that contain the files and programs that allow users to FTP, Telnet, and perform the various other Internet applications.

Hostname: The unique name given to a machine. See also: Fully Qualified Domain Name.

Host Table: An ASCII text file where each line is an entry consisting of one numeric address and one or more names associated with that address. This allows an user to send mail to a group of people or addresses via one address.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol): The ICMP delivers error and control messages from hosts to the requesters. AN ICMP test can determine whether a destination is reachable and responding. One example of this is using the Ping application.

internet: A collection of networks interconnected by a set of routers which allow them to function as a single, large virtual network.

Internet: (note the capital "I") The largest internet in the world consisting of large national backbone nets (such as MILNET, NSFNET, and CREN) and a myriad of regional and local campus networks all over the world. The Internet uses the Internet protocol suite. To be on the Internet you must have IP connectivity, i.e., be able to Telnet to--or ping--other systems. Networks with only e-mail connectivity are not actually classified as being on the Internet. Thorn Communications is a true Internet provider, allocating you an specific IP address every time a user connects. This IP address allows the user to telnet, ping, finger, and employ any other Internet application.

Internet Address: A 32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/IP. The Internet address can either be a numerical address or a named address.

IP (Internet Protocol): The network layer protocol for the Internet protocol suite. This is where the term "IP address" comes from. InterRamp users IP addresses are Internet Protocol addresses.

IP Address: Internet Protocol address. This is a 32-bit address assigned to host on a TCP/IP Internet. The IP address has a host component and a network component.

IP Datagram: The fundamental unit of information passed across the Internet. Contains source and destination addresses along with data and a number of fields which define such things as the length of the datagram, the header checksum, and flags to say whether the datagram can be (or has been) fragmented.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC): A world-wide "party line" protocol that allows one to converse with others in real time.

ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network. An emerging technology which is beginning to be offered by the telephone carriers of the world. ISDN combines voice and digital network services in a single medium making it possible to offer customers digital data services as well as voice connections through a single "wire." The standards that define ISDN are specified by CCITT.

ISO: International Organization for Standardization. You knew that, right? Best known for the 7-layer OSI Reference Model.

Kermit: A popular file transfer and terminal emulation program.

LAN: See "Local Area Network"

Layer: Communication networks for computers may be organized as a set of more or less independent protocols, each in a different layer (also called level). The lowest layer governs direct host-to-host communication between the hardware at different hosts; the highest consists of user applications. Each layer builds on the layer beneath it. For each layer, programs at different hosts use protocols appropriate to the layer to communicate with each other. TCP/IP has five layers of protocols; OSI has seven. The advantages of different layers of protocols is that the methods of passing information from one layer to another are specified clearly as part of the protocol suite, and changes within a protocol layer are prevented from affecting the other layers. This greatly simplifies the task of designing and maintaining communication programs.

Local Area Network (LAN): A data network intended to serve an area of only a few square kilometers or less. Because the network is known to cover only a small area, optimizations can be made in the network signal protocols that permit data rates up to 100Mb/s.

Log In: To perform a sequence of actions at a terminal that establishes a user's valid connection to a service. On Thorn's servers, your "login" is actually your username account number.

Mail Exploder: Part of an electronic mail delivery system which allows a message to be delivered to a list of addressees. Mail exploders are used to implement mailing lists. Users send messages to a single address (e.g., hacks@somehost.edu) and the mail exploder takes care of delivery to the individual mailboxes in the list. WARNING: Mail exploding is extremely hard to trace, extremely hard to stop, and can result in a mail bombing effect to the user.

Mail Gateway: A machine that connects two or more electronic mail systems (especially dissimilar mail systems on two different networks) and transfers messages between them. Sometimes the mapping and translation can be quite complex, and generally it requires a store-and-forward scheme whereby the message is received from one system completely before it is transmitted to the next system after suitable translations.

Mail Server: A software program that distributes files or information in response to requests sent via email. Internet examples include Almanac and netlib. Mail servers have also been used in Bitnet to provide FTP-like services. ng

Mailing List: A list of email addresses, used by a mail exploder, to forward messages to groups of people. Generally, a mailing list is used to discuss certain set of topics, and different mailing lists discuss different topics. A mailing list may be moderated. This means that messages sent to the list are actually sent to a moderator who determines whether or not to send the messages on to everyone else. Requests to subscribe to, or leave, a mailing list.

MAN: See "Metropolitan Area Network"

Martian: Humorous term applied to packets that turn up unexpectedly on the wrong network because of bogus routing entries. Also used as a name for a packet which has an altogether bogus (non-registered or ill-formed) Internet address.

MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit. The largest possible unit of data that can be sent on a given physical medium. Example: The MTU of Ethernet is 1500 bytes. Sometimes also known as MRU.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A data network intended to serve an area approximating that of a large city. Such networks are being implemented by innovative techniques, such as running fiber cables through subway tunnels. A popular example of one type of MAN is SMDS. ng>

MIME: See: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME): An extension to Internet email which provides the ability to transfer non-textual data, such as graphics, audio and fax. It is defined in RFC 1341.

Multi-User Dungeon (MUD): Adventure, role playing games, or simulations played on the Internet. Devotees call them "text-based virtual reality adventures". The games can feature fantasy combat, booby traps and magic. Players interact in real time and can change the "world" in the game as they play it.

Nagware: The variety of shareware that displays a large screen at the beginning or end reminding you to register, typically requiring some sort of keystroke to continue so that you can't use the software in batch mode.

Naive User: A "Luser". Tends to imply someone who is ignorant mainly owing to inexperience. When this is applied to someone who *has* experience, there is a definite implication of stupidity.

Name Resolution: The process of mapping a name into the corresponding address. For example, if you are trying to ping a host, if you type in an IP (Internet Protocol) address, the DNS will return a name in the bottom left corner of the ping box. If you type in a host name, the DNS will return an IP address. See DNS.

Nastygram: A protocol packet or item of email (the latter is also called a letterbomb) that takes advantage of misfeatures or security holes on the target system to do nasty things.

NDIS: Network Device Interface Specification: The NDIS specification is used for all communication with network adapters. The specification was developed by Microsoft and 3COM to provide a common programming interface for MAC drivers and transport drivers. NDIS works primarily with LAN manager and allows multiple protocol stacks to share a single network interface card.

net.personality: Someone who has made a name for him or herself on USENET, through either longevity or attention-getting posts.

net.police: (or "net.cops") Those USENET readers who feel it is their responsibility to pounce on and flame any posting which they regard as offensive or in violation of their understanding of "netiquette". Generally used sarcastically or pejoratively.

Netiquette: The conventions of politeness recognized on USENET, such as avoidance of cross-posting to inappropriate groups and refraining from commercial pluggery outside the biz groups.

Network, the: The union of all the major noncommercial, academic, and hacker-oriented networks, such as Internet, the old ARPANET, NSFnet, BITNET, and the virtual UUCP and USENET `networks', plus the corporate in-house networks and commercial time-sharing services (such as CompuServe) that gateway to them. A site is generally considered `on the network' if it can be reached through some combination of Internet-style (@-sign) and UUCP (bang-path) addresses.

Network Address: A unique number associated with a host that identifies it to other hosts during network transactions.

NetBIOS: Network Basic Input/Output system. It provides a Session layer interface between network applications running on a PC and the underlying protocol software of the Transport and Network Layers.

NETBUI: The NetBIOS Extended User Interface. This is the transport layer driver frequently used by a LAN Manager.

Network Printing: Printing to a shared printer locally attached to one of the PCs on the network.

NetWare: A network operating system developed by Novell.

Network Layer: The OSI (Open System Interconnection) layer that is responsible for routing, switching, and subnetwork access across the entire OSI environment. The model consists of seven layers, each of which specifies particular network functions such as addressing, flow control , error control, encapsulation, reliable message transfer, and many others. The highest layer (the application layer) is closest to the user; the lowest layer (the physical layer) is closest to the media technology. The OSI Reference Model is used universally as a method for teaching and understanding network functionality.

Newbie: A USENET neophyte. This term surfaced in the {newsgroup} talk.bizarre but is now in wide use. Criteria for being considered a newbie vary wildly; a person can be called a newbie in one newsgroup while remaining a respected regular in another. The label `newbie' is sometimes applied as a serious insult to a person who has been around USENET for a long time but who carefully hides all evidence of having a clue.

Newsgroup: Usenet groups can be `unmoderated' (anyone can post) or `moderated' (submissions are automatically directed to a moderator, who edits or filters and then posts the results).

NFS: Network File System. A protocol developed by SUN Microsystems that uses IP to allow a set of computers to access each others file systems as if they were local. Originally designed for UNIX systems, this protocol has been implemented on many other operating systems, including DOS and Windows.

NIC: Network Information Center. Originally there was only one, located at SRI International and tasked to serve the ARPANET (and later DDN) community. Today, there are many NICs, operated by local, regional, and national networks all over the world. Such centers provide user assistance, document service, training, and much more.

NOC: Network Operations Center. Any center tasked with the operational aspects of a production network. These tasks include monitoring and control, trouble-shooting, user assistance, etc.

NSF: National Science Foundation. Sponsors of the NSFNET.

NSFNET: National Science Foundation NETwork. A collection of local, regional, and mid-level networks in the U.S. tied together by a high-speed backbone. NSFNET provides scientists access to a number of "supercomputers" across the country.

Nuke: To intentionally delete the entire contents of a given directory or storage volume. "On UNIX, `rm -r /usr' will nuke everything in the usr directory."

Offline: Not now or not here. "Let's take this discussion offline." Specifically used on USENET to suggest that a discussion be moved off a public newsgroup to email. Offline can also refer to a user who is not physically connected to a service.

ONC(tm): Open Network Computing. A distributed applications architecture promoted and controlled by a consortium led by Sun Microsystems.

Operating System: (or `OS') The foundation software of a machine, of course; that which schedules tasks, allocates storage, and presents a default interface to the user between applications. The facilities an operating system provides and its general design philosophy exert an extremely strong influence on programming style and on the technical cultures that grow up around its host machines.

OSI: Open Systems Interconnection. An international standardization program to facilitate communications among computers from different manufacturers.

OSI Network Address: The address, consisting of up to 20 octets, used to locate an OSI Transport entity. The address is formatted into an Initial Domain Part which is standardized for each of several addressing domains, and a Domain Specific Part which is the responsibility of the addressing authority for that domain.

OSI Presentation Address: The address used to locate an OSI Application entity. It consists of an OSI Network Address and up to three selectors, one each for use by the Transport, Session, and Presentation entities.

Patch: A temporary addition to a piece of code, usually as a "quick-and-dirty" remedy to an existing bug or misfeature. A patch may or may not work, and may or may not eventually be incorporated permanently into the program.

Path: A bang path or explicitly routed Internet address; a node-by-node specification of a link between two machines. UNIX: A filename, fully specified relative to the root directory (as opposed to relative to the current directory; the latter is sometimes called a `relative path'). This is also called a `pathname'.

PCI: Protocol Control Information. The protocol information added by an OSI entity to the service data unit passed down from the layer above, all together forming a Protocol Data Unit (PDU).

PD: Common abbreviation for `public domain', applied to software distributed over USENET and from Internet archive sites. Much of this software is not in fact public domain in the legal sense but travels under various copyrights granting reproduction and use rights to anyone who can snarf a copy. This Public Domain software is often unsupported by vendors and service providers, due to the large numbers of PD files.

PDU: Protocol Data Unit. This is OSI terminology for "packet." A PDU is a data object exchanged by protocol machines (entities) within a given layer. PDUs consist of both Protocol Control Information (PCI) and user data.

Physical Layer: The OSI layer that provides the means to activate and use physical connections for bit transmission. In plain terms, the Physical Layer provides the procedures for transferring a single bit across a Physical Media.

Physical Media: Any means in the physical world for transferring signals between OSI systems.

Ping: Packet internet groper. A program used to test reachability of destinations by sending them an ICMP echo request and waiting for a reply. The term is used as a verb: "Ping host X to see if it is up!" It reports success or failure and statistics about an operation.

POP3: Post Office Protocol. This protocol is used by the Mail application to provide electronic mail services.

Port: The abstraction used by Internet transport protocols to distinguish among multiple simultaneous connections to a single destination host.

Posting: Distinguished from a `letter' or ordinary email message by the fact that it is broadcast rather than point-to-point. Internet users have the access to post to any subscribed newsgroup of their choice, where their posting can be viewed by anyone subscribed to the group.

Power Cycle: To power off a machine and then power it on immediately, with the intention of clearing some kind of hung or futzed state.

PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol. The successor to SLIP, PPP provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over both synchronous and asynchronous circuits.

Presentation Layer: The OSI layer that determines how Application information is represented (i.e., encoded) while in transit between two end systems.

Prompt: Word or words used by the system to assist a user's response. Such messages generally ask the user to respond by typing in some information in the following field.

Protocol: A formal description of messages to be exchanged and rules to be followed for two or more systems to exchange information.

RAM: RAM stands for Random Access Memory.

RBOC: Regional Bell Operating Company. These are the companies that were formed following the Bell Telephone breakup (Baby Bells). These are also the companies you will need to contact regarding establishing an ISDN connection.

Remote: Files, devices, and users not attached to your local machine.

Remote Host: another computer at another location that can be connected to via the Internet.

Remote Printer: a printer that can be used by your local computer that is not directly connected to the local computer, and must be accessed using a network connection.

Repeater: A physical device which propagates electrical signals from one cable to another. This is similar to repeaters that are used by most phone companies to pass on phone calls over very long distances.

RFC: Request For Comment: The RFC documents describe all aspects and issues associated with the Internet protocols. This document series, begun in 1969, describes and discusses various Internet technical issues, and acts as the framework for InterNet technical standards. Not all (in fact very few) RFCs describe Internet standards, but all Internet standards are written up as RFCs.

RFC 822: The internet standard format for electronic mail message headers.

Resources: Used in the context of "internet resources" this refers to anything that can be used and controlled by a computer, or its user. This includes files, physical (and logical) devices, applications, processes, peripherals, etc.

Route: The path that all network traffic takes to get from one location to another over phone lines. This often is accomplished though connections made through local telephone switching stations, to get from one host to another. Thorn connections go from your computer, to an outside telephone line, through (potentially) several phone switches, before they reach the local POP you dial into. From the POP, the signal then travels across several circuits before if finally reaches the appropriate machine.

Router: A system (sometimes a physical device) responsible for making decisions about which of several paths network (or Internet) traffic will follow. To do this it uses a routing protocol to gain information about the network, and algorithms to choose the best route based on several criteria known as "routing metrics."

Script: a sequence of commands, usually stored as ASCII, that can be processed to automate various tasks.

Server: a provider of resources. These can be further defined according to what type of resource they offer. It is usually a computer that provides services to a network.

SGMP: Simple Gateway Management Protocol. A simple set of rules that were originally used to manage InterNet traffic. These rules eventually evolved into it's descendent - SNMP, or Simple Network Management Protocol.

Signature: The three or four lines at the end of a e-mail message that identifies the sending party.

SLIP: Serial Line IP. An Internet protocol used to run IP over serial lines such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables interconnecting two systems. SLIP is now being replaced by PPP, which is used by Thorn Communications' dialup connections.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): The Internet electronic mail protocol. These rules govern how e-mail is processed by the myriad of systems that are all interconnected on the InterNet.

snail Mail: A term sometimes used to describe the U.S. Postal Service

SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol. The network management protocol of choice for TCP/IP-based internets. Used to connect groups of networks together using a common set of rules.

Stack: A set of organized computer variables used to keep track of the various processes that are taking place inside a computer. InterRamp users create a TCP/IP stack when they connect, on their local systems to keep track of the communication processes being carried out between their system and the Internet.

Subnetwork: A collection of end systems and intermediate systems under the control of a single administrative domain and utilizing a single network access protocol.

T1: A type of transmission media (in essence, a wire) that allows for data transmissions up to 1.544 megabits per second. This type of line is often used to interconnect whole networks of computers.

T3: A type of transmission media that allows for transmission at rates of up to ~45 megabits per second. This type of circuit is used to interconnect networks of larger systems.

TCP: Transmission Control Protocol. The major transport protocol used in the Internet suite of protocols providing reliable connections between networks.

Telnet: Allows users of one host to log into a remote host and interact as normal terminal users of that host. In order for a user to employ the telnet application, they must have a valid username/login and password to interact on that host.

Terminal Emulator: An application that configures a computer to act as a connection to a mainframe based system.

Token Ring: A type of Local Area Network topology whereby each node of the network passes on a control message to a subsequent node in the network chain.

Topology: A map used to define computers in a network and the links between them.

Transceiver: Transmitter-receiver. The physical device that connects a host interface(i.e.Ethernet Card) to a local area network, such as Ethernet. Ethernet transceivers contain electronics that apply signals to the cable and sense collisions. Typically, transceivers are found between the end of an input cable and a computer.

TSR: Terminate and Stay Resident. A type of program that is loaded into a computer's memory and stays active while other programs are being run. The TSR runs in the background, while other applications run in the foreground.

TTFN: Ta Ta for Now. Sometimes used in email messages.

Twisted Pair: A type of wiring used in circuits connecting computers to a WAN.

Usenet: a collection of newsgroups available throughout the internet, topically named and open for free group discussion.

User ID: a unique number used to identify you on the network. Thorn users are assigned a user id that doubles as their account id.

User Name: A character string, usually assigned by the system administrator that identifies a user on the system.

WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers): A distributed information service which offers natural language input and indexed searching of large databases of information from remote systems.

WHOIS: A program that allows users to query a database of people and other Internet entities, such as domains, networks, and hosts, kept in the DDN NIC (Department of Defense Network Information Center). Information stored here includes company names, addresses, phone numbers , and e-mail addresses.

W3 or WWW (World Wide Web): Hypertext based distributed information system created by CERN in Switzerland. Clients and Servers are freely available and include IE, Netscape and Opera.

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